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      How to Upgrade to Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

      Although Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Long Term Support) is still supported, users should upgrade Ubuntu to the more recent 22.04 LTS. Upgrading to the new release ensures the system can access the most recent security upgrades and application packages. This guide describes how to perform an inline upgrade from Ubuntu 20.xx or 21.xx to 22.04.

      New Features in Ubuntu 22.04

      Ubuntu 22.04 LTS from Canonical is also referred to as “Jammy Jellyfish”. Ubuntu generally supports their LTS releases for five years, which means Ubuntu 22.04 is supported until April 2027. This is superior to the Ubuntu 20.04 schedule, where support ends in April 2025. In addition, most application developers test their programs more thoroughly against the latest LTS release.

      In addition to the longer support period, Ubuntu 22.04 includes these other features and improvements:

      • Enhanced performance and better power efficiency.
      • A better display, featuring double the frame rate.
      • New power management options.
      • Updated security patches.
      • GNOME 42, which includes a streamlined user interface, on-screen notifications, and better multi-monitor support.
      • Increased customization options.
      • Firefox availability through a Snap package.
      • New releases of applications and toolchains. Updates and enhancements are available for Apache, MySQL, Perl, PHP, PostgreSQL, Python, and Ruby.
      • A new version (5.15) of the Linux Kernel.

      Inline Upgrade versus Clean Install

      There are two ways to upgrade a node. These are the inline upgrade method and the clean install approach. This guide only explains how to perform an inline upgrade. However, it is important to understand both methods to make an informed choice.

      The Inline Upgrade Method

      In an inline upgrade, the primary node is upgraded in place using either the GUI or command line directives. Ubuntu downloads and installs the new release of the operating system on the same system. The files and applications on the system are left unchanged and the node can immediately resume operations after the upgrade. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of this method, and other factors to consider, are as follows:

      • This is the easiest and fastest method of upgrading a node. Depending on the size of the new release, the node might be fully operational in as little as 15 minutes.
      • The Ubuntu upgrade procedure is well tested and generally reliable.
      • Users do not have to remember to reinstall a critical program or import data from the original node.
      • It is impossible to avoid some downtime while the updates are installed and the system reboots and initializes. During this period, any websites or applications hosted on the node are inaccessible. It is crucial to declare a maintenance window or switch to a backup system for the duration of the upgrade.
      • There is a greater chance of complications. Some applications might not work properly after the upgrade and might have to be reinstalled. There is also a greater chance of data corruption.
      • This method of upgrading tends to retain “digital residue”. This includes unnecessary or outdated packages, patches, and data.
      • This method is recommended if the system is only one release behind and is mainly running a widely used and tested configuration such as a LAMP stack. An inline upgrade might run into more problems when the system configuration is complicated or includes in-house applications.


      Although this process upgrades the Ubuntu operating system and most common programs, it does not necessarily upgrade every application. It is difficult to predict how the upgrade might affect these programs.

      The Clean Install Method

      The clean install method takes the opposite approach to the inline upgrade. This approach deploys a brand new Linode running the Ubuntu 22.04 release. All necessary applications are reinstalled and the backed-up data from the old node is copied over. After the new node is fully configured and operational, the old node is decommissioned.

      The pros and cons of a clean install are as follows:

      • It is easier to troubleshoot any problems because there are fewer dependencies.
      • The configuration tends to be cleaner. Old packages and unwanted files are not copied over.
      • This method takes a lot more effort and is more error prone. It is easy to forget to port over important applications and application data.
      • This method is a better choice if the system is running a much older release of Ubuntu or if the configuration is very convoluted. It is also a good choice for systems under the control of an Infrastructure as Code (IaC) application, like Terraform or Chef. These applications allow administrators to automatically provision a new remote node with a standard configuration.

      For an in-depth explanation of the clean install method, see the
      Linode guide to manually upgrading a node.

      Before You Begin

      1. If you have not already done so, create a Linode account and Compute Instance. See our
        Getting Started with Linode and
        Creating a Compute Instance guides.

      2. Follow our
        Setting Up and Securing a Compute Instance guide to update your system. You may also wish to set the timezone, configure your hostname, create a limited user account, and harden SSH access.

      3. Ensure there is at least 20 GB of disk space available. Verify the amount of disk space availability using the df -Th command.


      This guide is written for a non-root user. Commands that require elevated privileges are prefixed with sudo. If you are not familiar with the sudo command, see the
      Users and Groups guide.

      How to Upgrade to Ubuntu 22.04 LTS

      This guide is designed for users who want to upgrade from Ubuntu 20.04 LTS to Ubuntu 22.04 LTS. However, it is generally applicable for upgrades to Ubuntu 22.04 from any release of Ubuntu 20.xx or 21.xx.

      If the Linode is running Ubuntu 18.xx or any earlier release, first upgrade it to Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. Then perform the steps in this guide to upgrade from Ubuntu 20.04 LTS to the 22.04 LTS. See the
      Linode guide to Upgrade to Ubuntu 20.04 for more information. Alternatively, if the Ubuntu software and applications are very old, it might make more sense to perform a clean install instead.


      This operation cannot be canceled after it is started. Ensure there is a stable connection to the Linode and backup power is available.

      How to Prepare the Linode for the Upgrade

      To increase the chance of a successful upgrade, ensure the operating system and all applications are up to date. All data should be backed up and active user applications shut down.

      To prepare the Ubuntu system for the upgrade, follow these steps.

      1. Upgrade the Linode and ensure it is up to date.

        sudo apt update -y && sudo apt upgrade -y && sudo apt dist-upgrade -y
      2. To simplify the upgrade, remove unused packages and files.

        sudo apt autoremove -y && sudo apt autoclean -y
      3. Reboot the node to ensure any new kernel upgrades are installed. Linode makes new kernels available through the Linode cloud manager. Any updates are automatically applied to the node upon a reboot. For more information, see the
        Linode guide to monitoring and maintaining a system.

      4. Make a backup copy of the system configuration and all application data. The easiest way to do this is to back up the entire system. Subscribing to the
        Linode Backup Service allows you to take a manual snapshot before the upgrade.

      5. Stop as many non-critical user applications services as possible, including web and database servers. Focus on applications that might be subject to data corruption. To see a list of the active services, use the command systemctl | grep running.

        sudo systemctl | grep running
        apache2.service loaded active running The Apache HTTP Server
        mysql.service loaded active running MySQL Community Server
      6. Use the command sudo systemctl stop <application_name> to stop a service. The following example demonstrates how to stop the Apache web server instance.


        Do not stop any essential system services such as ssh or any systemd entry.

        sudo systemctl stop apache2
      7. Allow connections on TCP port 1022 through the ufw firewall. This permits Ubuntu to use a fallback port if the main connection drops. After adding the rule, reload the firewall.

        sudo ufw allow 1022/tcp
        sudo ufw reload
        Firewall reloaded
      8. Confirm connections on TCP port 1022 are now allowed.

        Status: active
        To                         Action      From
        --                         ------      ----
        OpenSSH                    ALLOW       Anywhere
        Apache Full                ALLOW       Anywhere
        1022/tcp                   ALLOW       Anywhere
        OpenSSH (v6)               ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)
        Apache Full (v6)           ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)
        1022/tcp (v6)              ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)

      How to Install Ubuntu Release 22.04

      The node is now ready for the upgrade. Ensure the update manager is installed, then initiate the upgrade. The upgrade might take some time, depending on the configuration, and must not be interrupted. Ensure there is enough time to complete the entire upgrade before proceeding.


      The upgrade operation can be performed using either a LISH session or an SSH connection. A LISH session is safer, but if SSH is used, the upgrade manager opens a second port for redundancy. This guide uses SSH for the procedure to demonstrate the additional steps required.

      1. Ensure the update-manager-core package is installed. On many systems, this package might already be available.

        sudo apt install update-manager-core
      2. Confirm the release-upgrader is set to the correct release update mode. The file /etc/update-manager/release-upgrades must include the line Prompt=lts.

        sudo cat /etc/update-manager/release-upgrades
        File: /etc/update-manager/release-upgrades
        # Default behavior for the release upgrader.
        # Default prompting and upgrade behavior, valid options:
        #  never  - Never check for, or allow upgrading to, a new release.
        #  normal - Check to see if a new release is available.  If more than one new
        #           release is found, the release upgrader will attempt to upgrade to
        #           the supported release that immediately succeeds the
        #           currently-running release.
        #  lts    - Check to see if a new LTS release is available.  The upgrader
        #           will attempt to upgrade to the first LTS release available after
        #           the currently-running one.  Note that if this option is used and
        #           the currently-running release is not itself an LTS release the
        #           upgrader will assume prompt was meant to be normal.
      3. Run the do-release-upgrade command to start the upgrade.


        To force an upgrade from the latest supported release to a development release, use the command do-release-upgrade -d. This guide focuses on upgrading to the latest supported release and does not use this flag.

      4. If the operation is performed using a SSH connection, Ubuntu verifies the SSH connection details and asks whether to continue. Answer y to continue.

        Continue running under SSH?
        This session appears to be running under ssh. It is not recommended
        to perform a upgrade over ssh currently because in case of failure it
        is harder to recover.
        If you continue, an additional ssh daemon will be started at port
        Do you want to continue?
      5. Ubuntu asks the user to confirm the new SSH port is allowed through the firewall. The port should already be open. Press the Enter key to continue.

        Starting additional sshd
        To make recovery in case of failure easier, an additional sshd will
        be started on port '1022'. If anything goes wrong with the running
        ssh you can still connect to the additional one.
        If you run a firewall, you may need to temporarily open this port. As
        this is potentially dangerous it's not done automatically. You can
        open the port with e.g.:
        'iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 1022 -j ACCEPT'
        To continue please press [ENTER]
      6. Ubuntu reads through the list of packages, builds the dependencies, and searches for internal package mirrors. If no mirrors are available, it prompts for approval to rewrite the sources.list file. Enter y to continue.

        Fetched 336 kB in 0s (0 B/s)
        Reading package lists... Done
        No valid mirror found
        While scanning your repository information no mirror entry for the
        upgrade was found. This can happen if you run an internal mirror or
        if the mirror information is out of date.
        Do you want to rewrite your 'sources.list' file anyway? If you choose
        'Yes' here it will update all 'focal' to 'jammy' entries.
        If you select 'No' the upgrade will cancel.
        Continue [yN]
      7. Ubuntu downloads the new packages and files. It determines which packages are no longer supported and requests approval to proceed. It also calculates how long the upgrade might take. To continue with the upgrade, answer y.


        To see details about the packages to be removed, installed, and upgraded, enter d. Enter q to exit the details screen. Then enter y to continue with the upgrade.

        Do you want to start the upgrade?
        14 installed packages are no longer supported by Canonical. You can
        still get support from the community.
        5 packages are going to be removed. 91 new packages are going to be
        installed. 571 packages are going to be upgraded.
        You have to download a total of 552 M. This download will take about
        2 minutes with you connection.
        Installing the upgrade can take several hours. Once the download has
        finished, the process cannot be canceled.
        Continue [yN]  Details [d]
      8. Ubuntu displays a pop-up asking whether to restart the services after the upgrade. Select either the <Yes> button to automatically restart them or <No> to restart them manually.

        Ubuntu Services Pop-up

      9. Ubuntu continues downloading the new packages. This can take a considerable length of time, especially if many applications have been installed. However, Ubuntu echoes the package names when it installs and processes them, allowing users to monitor the progress. During the upgrade, Ubuntu uses a pop-up to ask users how to handle the sshd_config file. Select the keep the local version currently installed option, and then choose <OK>.

        Ubuntu SSH Configuration Pop-up

      10. Ubuntu locates any obsolete packages and asks the user whether to remove them. Enter y to delete the outdated packages.

        Searching for obsolete software
        Reading state information... Done
        Remove obsolete packages?
        41 packages are going to be removed.
        Continue [yN]  Details [d]
      11. Ubuntu removes the packages and finalizes the upgrade. This stage might also take some length of time. Ubuntu informs the user that the upgrade is complete and prompts them to reboot the system. Select y to reboot and finalize the upgrade.

        System upgrade is complete.
        Restart required
        To finish the upgrade, a restart is required.
        If you select 'y' the system will be restarted.
        Continue [yN]

      How to Perform Post-Upgrade Clean-Up Activities

      Ubuntu has now been upgraded to version 22.04 LTS. After the Linode reboots, it is ready to resume operations. However, it is important to validate the upgrade. There are also still a few security concerns to fix and clean-up activities to perform. Log in to the Linode and perform the following steps.

      1. Use the lsb_release -a command to verify the correct release of Ubuntu is now installed. The Release attribute should be 22.04.

        No LSB modules are available.
        Distributor ID: Ubuntu
        Description:    Ubuntu 22.04.1 LTS
        Release:        22.04
        Codename:       jammy
      2. Optional: To validate the kernel version, use the uname command.

        Linux 5.15.0-53-generic x86_64
      3. To increase security, close port 1022 in the ufw firewall. Reload the firewall.

        sudo ufw delete allow 1022/tcp
        sudo ufw reload
      4. Confirm the firewall rules are updated.

        Status: active
        To                         Action      From
        --                         ------      ----
        OpenSSH                    ALLOW       Anywhere
        Apache Full                ALLOW       Anywhere
        OpenSSH (v6)               ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)
        Apache Full (v6)           ALLOW       Anywhere (v6)
      5. Ubuntu disables any third-party repositories during the upgrade. To search for disabled repositories, switch to the sources.list.d directory and list the entries.

        cd /etc/apt/sources.list.d
        ls -l
      6. Edit each list using a text editor. Remove the # symbol at the start of the affected entries, and save the file. In the following example, remove the # symbol in front of deb [arch=amd64].

        nano archive-application.list
        File: archive-application.list
        deb [arch=amd64] jammy main
      7. Update any third-party repositories and remove unnecessary packages using apt commands.

        sudo apt update -y && sudo apt upgrade -y && sudo apt dist-upgrade -y && sudo apt autoremove -y && sudo apt autoclean -y


      Users can access security updates and new features by upgrading to the new Ubuntu 22.04 LTS release. The two methods of updating a Linode are the inline update or the clean install. This guide explains how to perform an Ubuntu inline upgrade, which is the quickest and easiest method.

      To prepare to upgrade a Linode to Ubuntu 22.04 LTS, update and upgrade the node, back up the data, and stop all services. Use the do-release-upgrade command to initiate the upgrade and follow all Ubuntu prompts. After the upgrade, tighten up security, enable third-party archives, and perform some clean-up tasks. For more information about the Ubuntu 22.04 LTS release, see the
      Ubuntu server documentation.

      More Information

      You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information
      on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be
      useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of
      externally hosted materials.

      Source link

      How To Upgrade to Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa


      The Ubuntu operating system’s latest Long Term Support (LTS) release, Ubuntu 20.04 (Focal Fossa), was released on April 23, 2020. This guide will explain how to upgrade an Ubuntu system of version 18.04 or later to Ubuntu 20.04.

      Warning: As with almost any upgrade between major releases of an operating system, this process carries an inherent risk of failure, data loss, or broken software configuration. Comprehensive backups and extensive testing are strongly advised.

      To avoid these problems, we recommend migrating to a fresh Ubuntu 20.04 server rather than upgrading in-place. You may still need to review differences in software configuration when upgrading, but the core system will likely have greater stability. You can follow our series on how to migrate to a new Linux server to learn how to migrate between servers.


      This guide assumes that you have an Ubuntu 18.04 or later system configured with a sudo-enabled non-root user.

      Potential Pitfalls

      Although many systems can be upgraded in place without incident, it is often safer and more predictable to migrate to a major new release by installing the distribution from scratch, configuring services with careful testing along the way, and migrating application or user data as a separate step.

      You should never upgrade a production system without first testing all of your deployed software and services against the upgrade in a staging environment. Keep in mind that libraries, languages, and system services may have changed substantially. Before upgrading, consider reading the Focal Fossa Release Notes.

      Step 1 – Backing Up Your System

      Before attempting a major upgrade on any system, you should make sure you won’t lose data if the upgrade goes awry. The best way to accomplish this is to make a backup of your entire filesystem. Failing that, ensure that you have copies of user home directories, any custom configuration files, and data stored by services such as relational databases.

      On a DigitalOcean Droplet, one approach is to power down the system and take a snapshot (powering down ensures that the filesystem will be more consistent). See How to Create Snapshots of Droplets for more details on the snapshot process. After you have verified that the Ubuntu update was successful, you can delete the snapshot so that you will no longer be charged for its storage.

      For backup methods which will work on most Ubuntu systems, see How To Choose an Effective Backup Strategy for your VPS.

      Step 2 – Updating Currently Installed Packages

      Before beginning the release upgrade, it’s safest to update to the latest versions of all packages for the current release. Begin by updating the package list:

      Next, upgrade installed packages to their latest available versions:

      You will be shown a list of upgrades, and prompted to continue. Answer y for yes and press Enter.

      This process may take some time. Once it finishes, use the dist-upgrade command with apt-get, which will perform any additional upgrades that involve changing dependencies, adding or removing new packages as necessary. This will handle a set of upgrades which may have been held back by the previous apt upgrade step:

      Again, answer y when prompted to continue, and wait for upgrades to finish.

      Now that you have an up-to-date installation of Ubuntu, you can use do-release-upgrade to upgrade to the 20.04 release.

      Traditionally, Ubuntu releases have been upgradeable by changing Apt’s /etc/apt/sources.list – which specifies package repositories – and using apt-get dist-upgrade to perform the upgrade itself. Though this process is still likely to work, Ubuntu provides a tool called do-release-upgrade to make the upgrade safer and easier.

      do-release-upgrade handles checking for a new release, updating sources.list, and a range of other tasks, and is the officially recommended upgrade path for server upgrades which must be performed over a remote connection.

      Start by running do-release-upgrade with no options:

      If the new Ubuntu version has not been officially released yet, you may get the following output:


      Checking for a new Ubuntu release No new release found

      Note that on Ubuntu Server, the new LTS release isn’t made available to do-release-upgrade until its first point release, in this case 20.04.1. This usually comes a few months after the initial release date.

      If you don’t see an available release, add the -d option to upgrade to the development release:

      • sudo do-release-upgrade -d

      If you’re connected to your system over SSH, you’ll be asked whether you wish to continue. For virtual machines or managed servers you should keep in mind that losing SSH connectivity is a risk, particularly if you don’t have another means of remotely connecting to the system’s console (such as a web-based console feature, for example).

      For other systems under your control, remember that it’s safest to perform major operating system upgrades only when you have direct physical access to the machine.

      At the prompt, type y and press Enter to continue:


      Reading cache Checking package manager Continue running under SSH? This session appears to be running under ssh. It is not recommended to perform a upgrade over ssh currently because in case of failure it is harder to recover. If you continue, an additional ssh daemon will be started at port '1022'. Do you want to continue? Continue [yN]

      Next, you’ll be informed that do-release-upgrade is starting a new instance of sshd on port 1022:


      Starting additional sshd To make recovery in case of failure easier, an additional sshd will be started on port '1022'. If anything goes wrong with the running ssh you can still connect to the additional one. If you run a firewall, you may need to temporarily open this port. As this is potentially dangerous it's not done automatically. You can open the port with e.g.: 'iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 1022 -j ACCEPT' To continue please press [ENTER]

      Press Enter. Next, you may be warned that a mirror entry was not found. On DigitalOcean systems, it is safe to ignore this warning and proceed with the upgrade, since a local mirror for 20.04 is in fact available. Enter y:


      Updating repository information No valid mirror found While scanning your repository information no mirror entry for the upgrade was found. This can happen if you run an internal mirror or if the mirror information is out of date. Do you want to rewrite your 'sources.list' file anyway? If you choose 'Yes' here it will update all 'bionic' to 'focal' entries. If you select 'No' the upgrade will cancel. Continue [yN]

      Once the new package lists have been downloaded and changes calculated, you’ll be asked if you want to start the upgrade. Again, enter y to continue:


      Do you want to start the upgrade? 18 installed packages are no longer supported by Canonical. You can still get support from the community. 3 packages are going to be removed. 142 new packages are going to be installed. 452 packages are going to be upgraded. You have to download a total of 338 M. This download will take about 42 minutes with a 1Mbit DSL connection and about 13 hours with a 56k modem. Fetching and installing the upgrade can take several hours. Once the download has finished, the process cannot be canceled. Continue [yN] Details [d]

      New packages will now be retrieved, unpacked, and installed. Even if your system is on a fast connection, this will take a while.

      During the installation, you may be presented with interactive dialogs for various questions. For example, you may be asked if you want to automatically restart services when required:

      Service Restart Dialog

      In this case, it is safe to answer Yes. In other cases, you may be asked if you wish to replace a configuration file that you have modified. This is often a judgment call, and is likely to require knowledge about specific software that is outside the scope of this tutorial.

      Once new packages have finished installing, you’ll be asked whether you’re ready to remove obsolete packages. On a stock system with no custom configuration, it should be safe to enter y here. On a system you have modified heavily, you may wish to enter d and inspect the list of packages to be removed, in case it includes anything you’ll need to reinstall later.


      Remove obsolete packages? 53 packages are going to be removed. Continue [yN] Details [d]

      Finally, assuming all has gone well, you’ll be informed that the upgrade is complete and a restart is required. Enter y to continue:


      System upgrade is complete. Restart required To finish the upgrade, a restart is required. If you select 'y' the system will be restarted. Continue [yN]

      On an SSH session, you’ll likely see something like the following:


      Connection to closed by remote host. Connection to closed.

      You may need to press a key here to exit to your local prompt, since your SSH session will have terminated on the server end.

      Wait a moment for your server to reboot, then reconnect. On login, you should be greeted by a message confirming that you’re now on Focal Fossa :


      Welcome to Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (GNU/Linux 5.4.0-29-generic x86_64)


      You should now have a working Ubuntu 20.04 installation. From here, you likely need to investigate necessary configuration changes to services and deployed applications.

      You can find more 20.04 tutorials and questions on our Ubuntu 20.04 Tutorials tag page.

      Source link

      Upgrade Debian to the Newest Release

      Updated by Linode

      Written by Linode

      Debian repositories can be tracked either by codename (Wheezy, Jessie, etc.), or by status name (stable, testing, etc.). For example, Debian 9 Stretch is the stable release at the time of this writing; the status of Debian 8 (Jessie) is oldstable. Debian stable releases are eventually managed by the Debian Long Term Support (LTS) team for a total lifespan of about 5 years.

      Linode offers Debian’s stable and oldstable releases. When exclusively tracking the stable releases with APT, your system will upgrade whenever the stable release reaches its end of life. For example, if you’re tracking the stable release of Debian 8 and it reaches its end of life, your system will make available a number of new packages which will upgrade you to Debian 9.

      On the other hand, if you’re currently tracking repositories by codename, as Debian does by default, you will never upgrade beyond that codename release. This is the safest option and you can still manually upgrade to a newer Debian codename or release status name at any time.


      While upstream maintainers try to ensure cross-compatibility and problem-free upgrades, there is risk involved in upgrading operating system versions.

      Before You Begin

      • You will need root access to your Linode, or a user account with sudo privileges.

      • Back up any important data stored on your Linode! If you subscribe to the Linode Backups service, we recommend taking a manual snapshot before upgrading your system. If you use a different backup service or application, you should do a manual backup now.


        You may also want to back up your configuration files (usually located in /etc/) in case they have changed in later versions of the software you are using. See our backup guides for more information.

      Prepare to Upgrade

      1. Verify that you are booting with Debian’s kernel using the GRUB 2 boot setting in the Linode Cloud Manager. We recommend you use the distribution-supplied kernel unless you have a specific reason not to.

      2. Exit the SSH session if you’re currently logged in to one and instead open a Lish session to your Linode. Lish will give you continuous access to your Linode whereas SSH could disconnect during the upgrade. Read more about Lish here.

      3. Install all available updates for your current Debian system:

        sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
      4. If you’ve set APT to pin any packages to a specific Debian version other than stable, You’ll need to disable APT pinning for those packages if you want them upgraded to those offered in the newest release.

      5. You may want to stop services which are non-essential to the system but important to your setup, such as a database service. This would be to ensure a graceful shutdown of the service to prevent data loss or system locks from causing problems. To stop a service, enter the following command, replacing mariadb with the name of the service you want to stop:

        sudo systemctl stop mariadb

        You can view all enabled services with:

        sudo systemctl list-unit-files --state=enabled

        View all currently running services:

        sudo systemctl list-units --state=running

      Upgrade Debian

      1. Edit your sources.list file to change all instances of the current codename to the new release codename. The example of upgrading from Debian 8 (Jessie) to Debian 9 (Stretch) is used below, so jessie is changed to stretch (or, alternatively from jessie to stable).

        deb stretch main
        deb-src stretch main
        deb stretch/updates main
        deb-src stretch/updates main
        # stretch-updates, previously known as 'volatile'
        deb stretch-updates main
        deb-src stretch-updates main


        Ensure any third party repositories are also tracking stretch. You will need to check with the maintainers of each package to ensure that their own repositories have been updated.

      2. Update your package lists and remove any old packages which were previously downloaded for installation:

        sudo apt update
        sudo apt-get clean
      3. The Debian 8 release notes recommend a two-part upgrade path to avoid removing packages you may want to keep. Perform the minimal upgrade.

        sudo apt upgrade
        • During the upgrade process, you will prompted whether you want to replace or keep the current GRUB 2 file. This is because Linode must edit /etc/default/grub from upstream to work properly with our infrastructure.

          Keep current Grub 2 configuration

          Choose Keep the local version currently installed. Further prompts about installing GRUB should be answered with installing to /dev/sda, then Continue without installing GRUB. GRUB is not needed in your disk MBR because your Linode boots from a GRUB installation provided by Linode’s host servers.

        • During the upgrade process, you’ll be prompted to review configuration files which you’ve modified to decide whether to keep or replace them with the upstream default file. An example:

          Configuration file '/etc/mysql/my.cnf'
          ==> Modified (by you or by a script) since installation.
          ==> Package distributor has shipped an updated version.
          What would you like to do about it ?  Your options are:
          Y or I  : install the package maintainer's version
          N or O  : keep your currently-installed version
          D     : show the differences between the versions
        • If your system is running Fail2ban, the upgrade will end with the error shown below. This is a known issue. See the troubleshooting section of this page to fix before proceeding further.

          Errors were encountered while processing:
          E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (1)
      4. Once the minimal upgrade above is completed, start the main upgrade:

        sudo apt dist-upgrade
      5. Reboot your system when the upgrade completes. You should still be in Lish. Monitor the Linode’s console output for errors as the system shuts down and reboots. Your Linode is now running the newest version of Debian Stable.

      6. Remove old and unused packages:

        sudo apt-get autoremove


      Below are some known issues you may encounter when upgrading Debian. These are mainly just issues reported by our customers so you’ll want to monitor the debian-announce mailing list for more comprehensive information, and the lists of any third party packages you will install.


      When upgrading from Debian 8 to 9, you may experience problems because of a duplicate configuration option in /etc/fail2ban/jail.local if you copied it directly from /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf. This is currently a known issue. To fix this:

      1. Comment out port = anyport in /etc/fail2ban/jail.local (around line 155). The block should look similar to below:

        enabled  = false
        # pam-generic filter can be customized to monitor specific subset of 'tty's
        filter   = pam-generic
        # port actually must be irrelevant but lets leave it all for some possible uses
        port     = all
        banaction = iptables-allports
        #port     = anyport
        logpath  = /var/log/auth.log
        maxretry = 6
      2. Tell dpkg to reconfigure anything necessary:

        sudo dpkg --configure -a
        sudo apt-get install --fix-broken

      Upgrading Apache 2.2 to 2.4

      Upgrading from Debian 7 to 8 moves Apache from version 2.2 to 2.4. This version change can break existing websites if you’re already running Apache and requires adjusting configuration files. See our Upgrading Apache guide for more information.

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