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      How to Enact Access Control Lists (ACLs) and Bucket Policies with Linode Object Storage

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      Linode Object Storage allows users to share access to objects and buckets with other Object Storage users. There are two mechanisms for setting up sharing: Access Control Lists (ACLs), and bucket policies. These mechanisms perform similar functions: both can be used to restrict and grant access to Object Storage resources.

      In this guide you will learn:

      Before You Begin

      • This guide will use the s3cmd command line utility to interact with Object Storage. For s3cmd installation and configuration instructions, visit our How to Use Object Storage guide.

      • You’ll also need the canonical ID of every user you wish to grant additional permissions to.

      Retrieve a User’s Canonical ID

      Follow these steps to determine the canonical ID of the Object Storage users you want to share with:

      1. The following command will return the canonical ID of a user, given any of the user’s buckets:

        s3cmd info s3://other-users-bucket


        The bucket referred to in this section is an arbitrary bucket on the target user’s account. It is not related to the bucket on your account that you would like to set ACLs or bucket policies on.

        There are two options for running this command:

        • The users you’re granting or restricting access to can run this command on one of their buckets and share their canonical ID with you, or:

        • You can run this command yourself if you have use of their access tokens (you will need to configure s3cmd to use their access tokens instead of your own).

      2. Run the above command, replacing other-users-bucket with the name of the bucket. You’ll see output similar to the following:

        s3://other-users-bucket/ (bucket):
        Location:  default
        Payer:     BucketOwner
        Expiration Rule: none
        Policy:    none
        CORS:      none
        ACL:       a0000000-000a-0000-0000-00d0ff0f0000: FULL_CONTROL
      3. The canonical ID of the owner of the bucket is the long string of letters, dashes, and numbers found in the line labeled ACL, which in this case is a0000000-000a-0000-0000-00d0ff0f0000.

      4. Alternatively, you may be able to retrieve the canonical ID by curling a bucket and retrieving the Owner ID field from the returned XML. This method is an option when both of these conditions are true:

        • The bucket has objects within it and has already been set to public (with a command like s3cmd setacl s3://other-users-bucket --acl-public).
        • The bucket has not been set to serve static websites.
      5. Run the curl command, replacing the bucket name and cluster URL with the relevant values:

      6. This will result in the following output:

        <ListBucketResult xmlns="">

        In the above output, the canonical ID is a0000000-000a-0000-0000-00d0ff0f0000.

      ACLs vs Bucket Policies

      ACLs and bucket policies perform similar functions: both can restrict or grant access to buckets. ACLs can also restrict or grant access to individual objects, but they don’t offer as many fine-grained access modes as bucket policies.

      How to Choose Between ACLs and Bucket Policies

      If you can organize objects with similar permission needs into their own buckets, then it’s strongly suggested that you use bucket policies. However, if you cannot organize your objects in this fashion, ACLs are still a good option.

      ACLs offer permissions with less fine-grained control than the permissions available through bucket policies. If you are looking for more granular permissions beyond read and write access, choose bucket policies over ACLs.

      Additionally, bucket policies are created by applying a written bucket policy file to the bucket. This file cannot exceed 20KB in size. If you have a policy with a lengthy list of policy rules, you may want to look into ACLs instead.


      ACLs and bucket policies can be used at the same time. When this happens, any rule that limits access to an Object Storage resource will override a rule that grants access. For instance, if an ACL allows a user access to a bucket, but a bucket policy denies that user access, the user will not be able to access that bucket.


      Access Control Lists (ACLs) are a legacy method of defining access to Object Storage resources. You can apply an ACL to a bucket or to a specific object. There are two generalized modes of access: setting buckets and/or objects to be private or public. A few other more granular settings are also available.

      With s3cmd, you can set a bucket to be public with the setacl command and the --acl-public flag:

      s3cmd setacl s3://acl-example --acl-public

      This will cause the bucket and its contents to be downloadable over the general Internet.

      To set an object or bucket to private, you can use the setacl command and the --acl-private flag:

      s3cmd setacl s3://acl-example --acl-private

      This will prevent users from accessing the bucket’ contents over the general Internet.

      Other ACL Permissions

      The more granular permissions are:

      readUsers with can list objects within a bucket
      writeUsers can upload objects to a bucket and delete objects from a bucket.
      read_acpUsers can read the ACL currently applied to a bucket.
      write_acpUsers can change the ACL applied to the bucket.
      full_controlUsers have read and write access over both objects and ACLs.
      • Setting a permission: To apply these more granular permissions for a specific user with s3cmd, use the following setacl command with the --acl-grant flag:

        s3cmd setacl s3://acl-example --acl-grant=PERMISSION:CANONICAL_ID

        Substitute acl-example with the name of the bucket (and the object, if necessary), PERMISSION with a permission from the above table, and CANONICAL_ID with the canonical ID of the user to which you would like to grant permissions.

      • Revoking a permission: To revoke a specific permission, you can use the setacl command with the acl-revoke flag:

        s3cmd setacl s3://acl-example --acl-revoke=PERMISSION:CANONICAL_ID

        Substitute the bucket name (and optional object), PERMISSION, and CANONICAL_ID with your relevant values.

      • View current ACLs: To view the current ACLs applied to a bucket or object, use the info command, replacing acl-example with the name of your bucket (and object, if necessary):

        s3cmd info s3://acl-example

        You should see output like the following:

        s3://acl-bucket-example/ (bucket):
           Location:  default
           Payer:     BucketOwner
           Expiration Rule: none
           Policy:    none
           CORS:      b'<CORSConfiguration xmlns=""><CORSRule><AllowedMethod>GET</AllowedMethod><AllowedMethod>PUT</AllowedMethod><AllowedMethod>DELETE</AllowedMethod><AllowedMethod>HEAD</AllowedMethod><AllowedMethod>POST</AllowedMethod><AllowedOrigin>*</AllowedOrigin><AllowedHeader>*</AllowedHeader></CORSRule></CORSConfiguration>'
           ACL:       *anon*: READ
           ACL:       a0000000-000a-0000-0000-00d0ff0f0000: FULL_CONTROL


        The owner of the bucket will always have the full_control permission.

      Bucket Policies

      Bucket policies can offer finer control over the types of permissions you can grant to a user. Below is an example bucket policy written in JSON:

        "Version": "2012-10-17",
        "Statement": [{
          "Effect": "Allow",
          "Principal": {
            "AWS": [
          "Action": [
          "Resource": [

      This policy allows the user with the canonical ID a0000000-000a-0000-0000-00d0ff0f0000, known here as the “principal”, to interact with the bucket, known as the “resource”. The “resource” that is listed (bucket-policy-example) is the only bucket the user will have access to.


      The principal (a.k.a. the user) must have the prefix of arn:aws:iam:::, and the resource (a.k.a. the bucket) must have the prefix of arn:aws:s3:::.

      The permissions are specified in the Action array. For the current example, these are:

      The Action and Principal.AWS fields of the bucket policy are arrays, so you can easily add additional users and permissions to the bucket policy, separating them by a comma. To grant permissions to all users, you can supply a wildcard (*) to the Principal.AWS field.

      If you instead wanted to deny access to the user, you could change the Effect field to Deny.

      Enable a Bucket Policy

      To enable the bucket policy, use the setpolicy s3cmd command, supplying the file name of the bucket policy as the first argument, and the S3 bucket address as the second argument:

      s3cmd setpolicy bucket_policy_example.txt s3://bucket-policy-example

      To ensure that it has been applied correctly, you can use the info command:

      s3cmd info s3://bucket-policy-example

      You should see output like the following:

      s3://bucket-policy-example/ (bucket):
         Location:  default
         Payer:     BucketOwner
         Expiration Rule: none
         Policy:    b'{n  "Version": "2012-10-17",n  "Statement": [{n    "Effect": "Allow",n    "Principal": {"AWS": ["arn:aws:iam:::a0000000-000a-0000-0000-00d0ff0f0000"]},n    "Action": ["s3:PutObject","s3:GetObject","s3:ListBucket"],n    "Resource": [n      "arn:aws:s3:::bucket-policy-example/*"n    ]n  }]n}'
         CORS:      none
         ACL:       a0000000-000a-0000-0000-00d0ff0f0000: FULL_CONTROL


      The policy is visible in the output.

      More Information

      You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.

      Find answers, ask questions, and help others.

      This guide is published under a CC BY-ND 4.0 license.

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      How To Manage Lists in Redis


      Redis is an open-source, in-memory key-value data store. In Redis, a list is a collection of strings sorted by insertion order, similar to linked lists. This tutorial covers how to create and work with elements in Redis lists.

      How To Use This Guide
      This guide is written as a cheat sheet with self-contained examples. We encourage you to jump to any section that is relevant to the task you’re trying to complete.

      The commands and outputs shown in this guide were tested on an Ubuntu 18.04 server running Redis version 4.0.9. To obtain a similar setup, you can follow Step 1 of our guide on How To Install and Secure Redis on Ubuntu 18.04. We will demonstrate how these commands behave by running them with redis-cli, the Redis command line interface. Note that if you’re using a different Redis interface — Redli, for example — the exact outputs of certain commands may differ.

      Alternatively, you could provision a managed Redis database instance to test these commands, but note that depending on the level of control allowed by your database provider, some commands in this guide may not work as described. To provision a DigitalOcean Managed Database, follow our Managed Databases product documentation. Then, you must either install Redli or set up a TLS tunnel in order to connect to the Managed Database over TLS.

      Creating Lists

      A key can only hold one list, although any list can hold over four billion elements. Redis reads lists from left to right, and you can add new list elements to the head of a list (the “left” end) with the lpush command or the tail (the “right” end) with rpush. You can also use lpush or rpush to create a new list:

      Both commands will output an integer showing how many elements are in the list. To illustrate, run the following commands to create a list containing the dictum “I think therefore I am”:

      • lpush key_philosophy1 "therefore"
      • lpush key_philosophy1 "think"
      • rpush key_philosophy1 "I"
      • lpush key_philosophy1 "I"
      • rpush key_philosophy1 "am"

      The output from the last command will read:


      (integer) 5

      Note that you can add multiple list elements with a single lpush or rpush statement:

      • rpush key_philosophy1 "-" "Rene" "Decartes"

      The lpushx and rpushx commands are also used to add elements to lists, but will only work if the given list already exists. If either command fails, it will return (integer) 0:

      • rpushx key_philosophy2 "Happiness" "is" "the" "highest" "good" "–" "Aristotle"


      (integer) 0

      To change an existing element in a list, run the lset command followed by the key name, the index of the element you want to change, and the new value:

      • lset key_philosophy1 5 "sayeth"

      If you try adding a list element to an existing key that does not contain a list, it will lead to a clash in data types and return an error. For example, the following set command creates a key holding a string, so the following attempt to add a list element to it with lpush will fail:

      • set key_philosophy3 "What is love?"
      • lpush key_philosophy3 "Baby don't hurt me"


      (error) WRONGTYPE Operation against a key holding the wrong kind of value

      It isn’t possible to convert Redis keys from one data type to another, so to turn key_philosophy3 into a list you would need to delete the key and start over with an lpush or rpush command.

      Retrieving Elements from a List

      To retrieve a range of items in a list, use the lrange command followed by a start offset and a stop offset. Each offset is a zero-based index, meaning that 0 represents the first element in the list, 1 represents the next, and so on.

      The following command will return all the elements from the example list created in the previous section:

      • lrange key_philosophy1 0 7


      1) "I" 2) "think" 3) "therefore" 4) "I" 5) "am" 6) "sayeth" 7) "Rene" 8) "Decartes"

      The offsets passed to lrange can also be negative numbers. When used in this case, -1 represents the final element in the list, -2 represents the second-to-last element in the list, and so on. The following example returns the last three elements of the list held in key_philosophy1:

      • lrange key_philosophy1 -3 -1


      1) "I" 2) "am" 3) "sayeth"

      To retrieve a single element from a list, you can use the lindex command. However, this command requires you to supply the element’s index as an argument. As with lrange, the index is zero-based, meaning that the first element is at index 0, the second is at index 1, and so on:



      To find out how many elements are in a given list, use the llen command, which is short for “list length”:


      (integer) 8

      If the value stored at the given key does not exist, llen will return an error.

      Removing Elements from a List

      The lrem command removes the first of a defined number of occurrences that match a given value. To experiment with this, create the following list:

      • rpush key_Bond "Never" "Say" "Never" "Again" "You" "Only" "Live" "Twice" "Live" "and" "Let" "Die" "Tomorrow" "Never" "Dies"

      The following lrem example will remove the first occurence of the value "Live":

      This command will output the number of elements removed from the list:


      (integer) 1

      The number passed to an lrem command can also be negative. The following example will remove the last two occurences of the value "Never":


      (integer) 2

      The lpop command removes and returns the first, or “leftmost” element from a list:



      Likewise, to remove and return the last or “rightmost” element from a list, use rpop:



      Redis also includes the rpoplpush command, which removes the last element from a list and pushes it to the beginning of another list:

      • rpoplpush key_Bond key_AfterToday



      If the source and destination keys passed to rpoplpush command are the same, it will essentially rotate the elements in the list.


      This guide details a number of commands that you can use to create and manage lists in Redis. If there are other related commands, arguments, or procedures you’d like to see outlined in this guide, please ask or make suggestions in the comments below.

      For more information on Redis commands, see our tutorial series on How to Manage a Redis Database.

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